YABANCI DİL BİLGİSİ SEVİYE TESPİT SINAVI (YDS) İNGİLİZCE 2018

YDS ingilizce 2018

#1. – Fossil fuel use is one of the main causes of climate change and the greenhouse effect. (17)—-, we must significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from activities like heating and transportation. One option would be to (18)—- to renewable energy sources wherever possible, such as solar, hydropower, wind or geothermal systems. Another important step is to reduce our individual energy footprint. For example, driving a car places a particularly high burden on the environment (19)—- the carbon dioxide emissions into the air. Yet, we should keep in mind that there are several ways to lessen the impact and still continue (20)—- cars. For instance, by choosing (21)—- many new energy-saving models, we can help reduce harmful emissions.

#2. What motivated Piccard to fly around the world in a solar-powered plane?

#3. Matthew:  A friend of mine plays in an orchestra and has invited me to their concert. I’m really nervous because I don’t know anything about orchestras. Judy:  Actually, most people don’t know much about orchestras. Just pay attention to the instrument categories, and then you’ll be less worried. Matthew:  —- Judy:  Well, each group sits together. First, you have the strings. Woodwinds are in the following section. Behind them are the brass instruments, and at the back is the percussion section.

#4. When fighting fat, and trying to eat healthily, changing your eating environment is easier than changing your mind. A research team in the US has set about uncovering the hidden persuaders in our homes that trick us (22)—- overeating – things like serving spoons, cupboards and colours. But most of these tempters can also be reversed to make us slimmer and healthier. (23)—- there are many solutions to mindless eating, most of them will go undiscovered because if we have a problem with our diet, we tend to focus on food itself, not on our surroundings. All that requires willpower, which is hard work and has to last a lifetime to be (24)—- successful. Research has found subtle ways to change our homes, workplaces, schools, or modify our approach to restaurant dining and grocery shopping, so we mindlessly eat less (25)—- eating more. If we want to automatically eat better, we do not need to change our minds, we (26)—- our surroundings

#5. – In statistics, —- the standard deviation allows us to see how much individuals vary within a sample, —- the standard error allows us to estimate how much samples will vary within a population.

#6. – 76-80: For these questions, choose the irrelevant sentence in the passage. (I) Across the globe, people greeted the end of World War II with a profound sense of relief. (II) By virtually any measurement, the war had been the most devastating conflict in human history. (III) The more traditional and more widely accepted date for the start of World War II is 1 September 1939, with the quick but not quite blitzkrieg (lightning) German invasion of Poland. (IV) The war’s economic cost alone has been calculated at perhaps five times that of World War I. (V) In human terms, it claimed half again as many military lives: 15 million versus 10 million for World War I.

#7. – Admired by native peoples for thousands of years, the Texas horned lizard has an array of abilities. It mostly eats ants – lots of them, and most parts of an ant’s body are indigestible, which necessitates a huge stomach. Eating more than two hundred ants per day means exposure out in the open for long periods, and having a ‘heavy’ stomach means that a horned lizard finds it difficult to run away from predators. Instead, it relies on an armory of defences. It has camouflage colouring, with an outline broken up by spines and outgrowths, and it will freeze if a predator approaches. Its horns and spines can pierce the throat of a snake or bird, and it can hiss and blow itself up to look even more fearsome. When it comes to coyotes, foxes, and dogs, a horned lizard’s most spectacular defence is to squirt foul-tasting blood from the sinuses behind its eyes. That usually has the desired effect. But it squirts only when it is provoked, since it risks losing up to one quarter of its blood. Such abilities are, however, no defense against human invasion of its land. Its strange shape and colouring has made it attractive to reptile collectors, and its habit of freezing means that it is prone to being run over. – Upon contact with humans, a horned lizard —-

#8. – Which of the following is pointed out in the passage?

#9. In Piccard’s own words, what is the main purpose of Solar Impulse 2?

#10. – 51-54: Answer these questions according to the passage below – More mythology surrounds the shark than any other creatures in the ocean. This is partly a symptom of their colossal size – adult male great whites can measure in excess of five metres; the temptation for humans to add a metre here or there after reported sightings is irresistable. Sharks are also, by nature, mysterious. Scientists still know next to nothing about great whites’ breeding habits; a birth in the wild has never been observed. One of the biggest great white shark myths is that the creature, disabled by its notoriously poor vision, often mistakes surfers and scuba-divers for its main prey – seals and sea lions. “Completely false,” says Richard Aidan Martin, director of the ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research in Vancouver, Canada. After observing 1,000 predatory attacks on sea lions by great whites for five years, he states that the sharks rocket to the surface and crush their prey with incredible force; however, they usually approach humans with leisurely or undramatic behaviour. Martin points out that great whites are curious and investigative animals, which is what most people do not realise. When great whites bite something unfamiliar to them, whether a person or a sea creature, they are looking for tactile evidence about what it is. They usually throw humans out of their mouth after an exploratory bite rather than swallow them for food because humans are too bony. To add more, great whites must be extremely selective about their diet. Their digestive tracts function very slowly, and eating the wrong thing would slow the shark down for days and stop them from consuming anything else. – It is understood from the passage that great whites —-.

#11. – According to a World Bank report in 1993, the East Asian miracle, achieving high economic growth for all people, is due to a combination of fundamentally sound development policies, tailored interventions, and an unusually rapid increase of physical and human capital. The more advanced economies in the Asian region are part of this success and have been referred to as high-performing East Asian economies. —- In addition, these economies have displayed high per capita incomes, along with a much-improved income distribution, compared with most other developing economies.

#12. – Of the 20 amino acids that make up all proteins, 9 are considered essential —-

#13. Pick up a glass, fill it from the tap and take a sip. You just had a tiny dose of the pill your neighbour took days before. Excreted and flushed through our sewage works and waterways, drug molecules are all around us. A recent analysis of streams in the US detected an entire pharmacy: diabetic medications, muscle relaxants, opioids, antibiotics, antidepressants and more. Drugs have even been found in crops irrigated by treated waste water. The amounts that end up in your glass are minuscule, and will not lay you low tomorrow. However, someone prescribed multiple drugs is more likely to experience side effects due to these small doses, and risks rise exponentially with each drug taken by a person over 65. “These drugs have been individually approved but we have not studied what it means when they are together in the same soup,” says Mae Wu at the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC) – What can be inferred from Mae Wu’s words?

#14. – Karşılaştığımız bütün problemleri eşit derecede iyi çözemeyebiliriz, çünkü her bir problem farklı ve yaratıcı bir çözüm gerektirebilir.

#15. – —- there is no consensus among folklorists on how to define folklore nor how to explain the issues of the meaning and the function of it, folklore generally refers to cultural expressions, such as narratives, music, dance, beliefs and festivals.

#16. – 20. yüzyılın başlarında Albert Einstein adında genç bir Alman, klasik fiziği sarsarak ve mutlak bir zaman ve uzay fikrini sonlandırarak görelilik kuramını öne sürdü

#17. – Pick up a glass, fill it from the tap and take a sip. You just had a tiny dose of the pill your neighbour took days before. Excreted and flushed through our sewage works and waterways, drug molecules are all around us. A recent analysis of streams in the US detected an entire pharmacy: diabetic medications, muscle relaxants, opioids, antibiotics, antidepressants and more. Drugs have even been found in crops irrigated by treated waste water. The amounts that end up in your glass are minuscule, and will not lay you low tomorrow. However, someone prescribed multiple drugs is more likely to experience side effects due to these small doses, and risks rise exponentially with each drug taken by a person over 65. “These drugs have been individually approved but we have not studied what it means when they are together in the same soup,” says Mae Wu at the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC). – It is pointed out in the passage that the tap water —-.

#18. – When fighting fat, and trying to eat healthily, changing your eating environment is easier than changing your mind. A research team in the US has set about uncovering the hidden persuaders in our homes that trick us (22)—- overeating – things like serving spoons, cupboards and colours. But most of these tempters can also be reversed to make us slimmer and healthier. (23)—- there are many solutions to mindless eating, most of them will go undiscovered because if we have a problem with our diet, we tend to focus on food itself, not on our surroundings. All that requires willpower, which is hard work and has to last a lifetime to be (24)—- successful. Research has found subtle ways to change our homes, workplaces, schools, or modify our approach to restaurant dining and grocery shopping, so we mindlessly eat less (25)—- eating more. If we want to automatically eat better, we do not need to change our minds, we (26)—- our surroundings.

#19. – Pick up a glass, fill it from the tap and take a sip. You just had a tiny dose of the pill your neighbour took days before. Excreted and flushed through our sewage works and waterways, drug molecules are all around us. A recent analysis of streams in the US detected an entire pharmacy: diabetic medications, muscle relaxants, opioids, antibiotics, antidepressants and more. Drugs have even been found in crops irrigated by treated waste water. The amounts that end up in your glass are minuscule, and will not lay you low tomorrow. However, someone prescribed multiple drugs is more likely to experience side effects due to these small doses, and risks rise exponentially with each drug taken by a person over 65. “These drugs have been individually approved but we have not studied what it means when they are together in the same soup,” says Mae Wu at the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC). – What is the main purpose of the author?

#20. More than a hundred different studies have shown that there really is a significant relation between happiness and physical health.

#21. – 72-75: For these questions, choose the best option to complete the missing part of the passage – It has been a basic tenet that an individual who uses substances heavily will become addicted. There are reports, however, of people becoming addicted to a substance with exposure only once or a few times. Some experts believe people are born with the predisposition to become addicted. —- Thus, the potential for addiction may be hereditary. On the other hand, a psychological problem may lead the individual into addiction. The need for instant gratification, a feeling of being socially ostracized, and an inability to cope with the downfalls of life have all been cited as possible springboards to addiction.

#22. -Dramatists and scriptwriters could place their characters —- the centre of a terrifying human conflict, and may allow us to watch these characters suffer the pains of avoiding a collision —- the conflict.

#23. – Although the available evidence shows no use of colour or decoration on early footwear, —-.

#24. – It is emphasised in the passage that Richard Aidan Martin —-.

#25. – 37-42: For these questions, choose the most accurate Turkish translation of the sentences in English, and the most accurate English translation of the sentences in Turkish. – Since the 1970s, media literacy has developed through the work of educators who have implemented programs to explore mass media, popular culture, and communication technologies with children and young people.

#26. -Gender studies is a multifaceted field of inquiry into social structures and social relations that has important —- for the study of violence, peace and conflict.

#27. Delicately carved from mammoth tusk, the Lady of Brassempouy was discovered in southwest France in 1894 and is among the oldest representations of a human face.

#28. – Fossil fuel use is one of the main causes of climate change and the greenhouse effect. (17)—-, we must significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from activities like heating and transportation. One option would be to (18)—- to renewable energy sources wherever possible, such as solar, hydropower, wind or geothermal systems. Another important step is to reduce our individual energy footprint. For example, driving a car places a particularly high burden on the environment (19)—- the carbon dioxide emissions into the air. Yet, we should keep in mind that there are several ways to lessen the impact and still continue (20)—- cars. For instance, by choosing (21)—- many new energy-saving models, we can help reduce harmful emissions.

#29. -Nano-tech products can potentially save lives as well as give us hundreds of new conveniences from enhanced drug delivery and disease —- to fabric that will not stain

#30. —- the problems of obesity and disordered eating growing around the world, public health professionals have focused research efforts on identifying potential causes and treatments —- these related problems.

#31. – —-, it will not be possible to turn a draft into a finished piece of work

#32. – Admired by native peoples for thousands of years, the Texas horned lizard has an array of abilities. It mostly eats ants – lots of them, and most parts of an ant’s body are indigestible, which necessitates a huge stomach. Eating more than two hundred ants per day means exposure out in the open for long periods, and having a ‘heavy’ stomach means that a horned lizard finds it difficult to run away from predators. Instead, it relies on an armory of defences. It has camouflage colouring, with an outline broken up by spines and outgrowths, and it will freeze if a predator approaches. Its horns and spines can pierce the throat of a snake or bird, and it can hiss and blow itself up to look even more fearsome. When it comes to coyotes, foxes, and dogs, a horned lizard’s most spectacular defence is to squirt foul-tasting blood from the sinuses behind its eyes. That usually has the desired effect. But it squirts only when it is provoked, since it risks losing up to one quarter of its blood. Such abilities are, however, no defense against human invasion of its land. Its strange shape and colouring has made it attractive to reptile collectors, and its habit of freezing means that it is prone to being run over – It could be bad for a horned lizard to use its own blood for defence because —-.

#33. – (I) Established on 7 April 1948, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is one of the original agencies of the United Nations. (II) WHO defines health not merely as the absence of disease or illness, but as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. (III) Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, WHO was set up to improve international cooperation for better health conditions across the world. (IV) It took over from the Health Organisation of the League of Nations and the International Public Office of Health in Paris. (V) Those two organisations had focused on the control of epidemics, quarantine measures, and the standardisation of drugs.

#34. – Professor:  And here you see a picture of a little devil frog. The male produces noisy sounds in pursuit of a partner. Student:  —- Professor:  Well, he’s a poisonous frog and has bright colours which warn predators that he’s unsafe to eat. Student:  How significant characteristics it has!

#35. – While most research on the role of genetics and the heritability of aggression has ruled out the idea of an aggressive gene, —-.

#36. – In almost all cultures and societies, children have collected a broad spectrum of items. Although the activity seems to be universal, very little has been written on this subject. And even though collecting has played an important part in many individuals’ lives, it is seldom described in memoirs or autobiographies. This may be because many collections are suddenly abandoned when the collector grows up. —- Other collections, however, continue into adult life, becoming lifelong passionate occupations; this is especially likely with collections that have some kind of economic value or present the adult with challenges or opportunities for further study.

#37. – Fossils are remnants or traces of an animal or plant of a past geologic age that have been preserved in various ways in the Earth’s crust. From earliest times people must have seen fossils, but the first reports we have on the subject are from the ancient Greeks. Xenophanes of the early Ionian school is said to have noticed fossilised sea creatures high on mountains; he correctly interpreted this as meaning that these mountains had once been under water. —- For example, he associated the fossilised bones of large creatures with mythical animals or with giant humans.

#38. – Forensic investigators must collect evidence while the crime scene is still fresh —-.

#39. Çıraklık sistemleri Avrupa ve Asya ülkelerinde yaygın bir biçimde kullanılagelmiş olsa da Birleşik Devletler’dekinden biraz farklı bir biçimde işlemektedir.

#40. – 47-50: Answer these questions according to the passage below. – Admired by native peoples for thousands of years, the Texas horned lizard has an array of abilities. It mostly eats ants – lots of them, and most parts of an ant’s body are indigestible, which necessitates a huge stomach. Eating more than two hundred ants per day means exposure out in the open for long periods, and having a ‘heavy’ stomach means that a horned lizard finds it difficult to run away from predators. Instead, it relies on an armory of defences. It has camouflage colouring, with an outline broken up by spines and outgrowths, and it will freeze if a predator approaches. Its horns and spines can pierce the throat of a snake or bird, and it can hiss and blow itself up to look even more fearsome. When it comes to coyotes, foxes, and dogs, a horned lizard’s most spectacular defence is to squirt foul-tasting blood from the sinuses behind its eyes. That usually has the desired effect. But it squirts only when it is provoked, since it risks losing up to one quarter of its blood. Such abilities are, however, no defense against human invasion of its land. Its strange shape and colouring has made it attractive to reptile collectors, and its habit of freezing means that it is prone to being run over. – For a horned lizard, eating too many ants means that it —-. ? 47-50: Answer these questions according to the passage below.

#41. – (I) The best conditions for dandelion seeds are relatively calm, sunny days that generate thermal updraughts. (II) A 2003 study at the University of Regensburg in Germany found that 99.5 percent of dandelion seeds land within 10 metres of their plant. (III) That is because the seed ‘parachute’ falls at about 30 cm per second and dandelions only grow about 30 cm high. (IV) So, that gives each seed just one second of flight time to be blown sideways by the wind to its new home. (V) Higher wind speeds do not really increase the distance the seeds fly, because strong winds tend to blow downwards as well as sideways, so the seeds just land even sooner.

#42. – What can be understood about Humperdinck?

#43. Which could be the best title for this passage?

#44. Trans fat may be as harmful to your health as saturated fat —-.

#45. – The years following the 1789 revolution in France brought massive upheaval in French society, which, in turn, produced profound changes in dress and fashion.

#46. – 63-67: For these questions, choose the best option to complete the dialogue. – Reporter:  Kids love to eat hamburgers, but they’re not very healthy. Tell us about the public school initiative to make lunches healthier for students. Dietician:  With some help from food engineers, we’ve created a mushroom-beef blend that’s being used in schools across the country to help students eat healthier. Reporter:  —- Dietician:  True. In addition to fewer calories and saturated fats than regular hamburgers, this blend is also a greener alternative to meat since mushrooms are more sustainable than beef. Reporter:  That makes sense as they require fewer resources than livestock to produce.

#47. – When fighting fat, and trying to eat healthily, changing your eating environment is easier than changing your mind. A research team in the US has set about uncovering the hidden persuaders in our homes that trick us (22)—- overeating – things like serving spoons, cupboards and colours. But most of these tempters can also be reversed to make us slimmer and healthier. (23)—- there are many solutions to mindless eating, most of them will go undiscovered because if we have a problem with our diet, we tend to focus on food itself, not on our surroundings. All that requires willpower, which is hard work and has to last a lifetime to be (24)—- successful. Research has found subtle ways to change our homes, workplaces, schools, or modify our approach to restaurant dining and grocery shopping, so we mindlessly eat less (25)—- eating more. If we want to automatically eat better, we do not need to change our minds, we (26)—- our surroundings.

#48. -Childcare is a broad term that —- services which protect the health, safety, and well-being of children who require custodial care by adults other than their own parents for a temporary period of time

#49. – —-, he was foremost an inventor and more interested in attracting public interest in his work than advancing scientific knowledge

#50. – As members of households established complex relationships with outsiders during the agrarian era, they came under the influence of new rules, structures, and expectations

#51. What is clearly stated as being unique about Piccard’s aircraft?

#52. – By 2.5 million years ago, when they began —- stone tools, early humans had understood that they —- the natural world to their own advantage.

#53. – 55-58: Answer these questions according to the passage below. – The story of Hansel and Gretel, in which two children outsmart a witch who is about to destroy them, was passed down to us from the brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. They began recording various folk tales told to them by villagers and farmers near the town of Kassel, Germany, in about 1807. Hansel and Gretel was told to the brothers by a young girl, Doretchen Wild, who years later became Wilhelm Grimm’s wife. The fairy tale gained wide popularity after German composer Engelbert Humperdinck made it the basis of a children’s opera, first introduced in Munich in 1893. However, the opera, as well as subsequent versions of the story, omits the most traumatising aspect of the traditional tale: the parents’ deliberate abandonment of their children to the wild beasts of the forest. Another important feature of Hansel and Gretel is that it was not only known through German oral tradition. A version circulating in France as early as the late 17th century had a house made not of gingerbread but of gold and jewels, in which a young girl is held by a giant whom she eventually pushes into his own fire. However, it was the Grimm brothers who immortalised the tale for future generations – an excellent story that every child throughout the world should come across. – Which of the following can be said about the story of Hansel and Gretel?

#54. – Some birds build nests simply to protect their young —-.

#55. -Industrial nations consume nearly 75 to 80 percent of the fossil fuels burned each year; —-, they are responsible for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions

#56. -Architectural analysis is not only a —- academic pursuit, done for its own sake, but it can be informative and entertaining as well.

#57. – Researcher:  From your documentary, we learned that Princess Diana secretly collaborated with journalist Andrew Morton to write a book about her life, in which he discloses details of her troubled relations with the royal family. Documentarist:  Well, when the book was published in 1992, Diana’s cooperation was a secret. But, when Morton republished the book after her death in 1997, he exposed the fact that Diana herself was the direct source for many revelations in the book. Reporter:  —- Documentarist:  He wanted to bring an important fact to light; the Princess herself wanted the public to know she was not living a fairy tale, but a life of misery.

#58. – Journalist:  You’re the co-leader of an international project to drill for rock samples in the South China Sea. Why is that sea bed of such interest? Geophysicist:  We want to answer questions about when it was formed to better understand continental movements. Journalist:  —- Geophysicist:  We also plan to study the microbiology of the ocean crust to see if there are new organisms at these great depths.

#59. – The saddest part of Hansel and Gretel is that —-

#60. – 7-16: For these questions, choose the best word(s) or expression(s) to fill the space(s). – A number of studies have concluded that a given level of carbon dioxide in the

#61. – Fossil fuel use is one of the main causes of climate change and the greenhouse effect. (17)—-, we must significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from activities like heating and transportation. One option would be to (18)—- to renewable energy sources wherever possible, such as solar, hydropower, wind or geothermal systems. Another important step is to reduce our individual energy footprint. For example, driving a car places a particularly high burden on the environment (19)—- the carbon dioxide emissions into the air. Yet, we should keep in mind that there are several ways to lessen the impact and still continue (20)—- cars. For instance, by choosing (21)—- many new energy-saving models, we can help reduce harmful emissions

#62. – (I) The conventional wisdom is that it is a molecule’s specific shape that allows our noses to distinguish between one smell and another. (II) But there is new evidence that it is actually the frequency of a molecule’s vibration, a quantum effect, that is all-important. (III) Most olfactory (smell) scientists believe that receptors within our noses act like a lock that can only be activated by a molecule of a specific shape – the ‘key’. (IV) Molecules are collections of atoms that can be thought of as being connected by springs that can vibrate. (V) The trouble is, some molecules with different shapes have similar smells.

#63. – 59-62: Answer these questions according to the passage below. – In Bertrand Piccard’s family, there is a tradition of being first. His grandfather, Auguste, was the first person to ride a balloon into the stratosphere. His father, Jacques, was the first to reach the Earth’s deepest point, the Pacific’s Mariana Trench. And in 1999, Piccard completed the first non-stop, around-the-world balloon flight. This feat, plus an environmentally conscious approach to innovation, spurred the renowned Swiss adventurer to dream of circumnavigating the globe in a plane that uses no fuel. The result is the Solar Impulse 2, an aircraft equipped with more than 17,000 solar cells. Thanks to lithium batteries that efficiently store energy reserves, it is the first solar-powered plane that can fly through the night. “If we want to solve our pollution and energy problems,” says Piccard, a psychiatrist by training, “we need to increase our energy efficiency and focus on clean technologies. Solar Impulse 2 is really a way to show that those technologies are mature.” – What can be inferred about Piccard’s father and grandfather?

#64. – The idea of the Internet was initially to provide redundancy of communications —- a catastrophic event like a nuclear blast, which might destroy a single connection or computer but not the entire network

#65. -Buildings such as the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey date back to the sixth century and yet are still standing —- they are located in earthquake-prone areas

#66. – Fossil fuel use is one of the main causes of climate change and the greenhouse effect. (17)—-, we must significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from activities like heating and transportation. One option would be to (18)—- to renewable energy sources wherever possible, such as solar, hydropower, wind or geothermal systems. Another important step is to reduce our individual energy footprint. For example, driving a car places a particularly high burden on the environment (19)—- the carbon dioxide emissions into the air. Yet, we should keep in mind that there are several ways to lessen the impact and still continue (20)—- cars. For instance, by choosing (21)—- many new energy-saving models, we can help reduce harmful emissions

#67. – 27-36: For these questions, choose the best option to complete the given sentence. – Because of its power and potential for both harm and good, —-.

#68. – 17-21: For these questions, choose the best word or expression to fill the spaces in the passage. – Fossil fuel use is one of the main causes of climate change and the greenhouse effect. (17)—-, we must significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from activities like heating and transportation. One option would be to (18)—- to renewable energy sources wherever possible, such as solar, hydropower, wind or geothermal systems. Another important step is to reduce our individual energy footprint. For example, driving a car places a particularly high burden on the environment (19)—- the carbon dioxide emissions into the air. Yet, we should keep in mind that there are several ways to lessen the impact and still continue (20)—- cars. For instance, by choosing (21)—- many new energy-saving models, we can help reduce harmful emissions.

#69. – 68-71: For these questions, choose the best rephrased form of the given sentence. – While in Holland, John Locke had time to complete a number of important works that established his reputation as England’s foremost political theorist

#70. While professional advertisers scoff at the idea, the general public seems to assume that subliminal advertising is widely and effectively practiced.

#71. – Taking a break, and distracting your mind for a while, not only gives you the spare time to be creative, but it can also give your brain the space it needs to —- creative solutions to problems you have been struggling with

#72. – 22-26: For these questions, choose the best word or expression to fill the spaces in the passage. – When fighting fat, and trying to eat healthily, changing your eating environment is easier than changing your mind. A research team in the US has set about uncovering the hidden persuaders in our homes that trick us (22)—- overeating – things like serving spoons, cupboards and colours. But most of these tempters can also be reversed to make us slimmer and healthier. (23)—- there are many solutions to mindless eating, most of them will go undiscovered because if we have a problem with our diet, we tend to focus on food itself, not on our surroundings. All that requires willpower, which is hard work and has to last a lifetime to be (24)—- successful. Research has found subtle ways to change our homes, workplaces, schools, or modify our approach to restaurant dining and grocery shopping, so we mindlessly eat less (25)—- eating more. If we want to automatically eat better, we do not need to change our minds, we (26)—- our surroundings

#73. – (I) The idea of the human mind as the domain of absolute protection from external intrusion has persisted for centuries. (II) Today, however, this presumption might no longer hold. (III) Sophisticated neuro-imaging machines detect the electrical activity of neurons, enabling us to decode and even alter the nervous system signals that accompany mental processes. (IV) Medical devices connected to the brain are vulnerable to sabotage, and neuroscientists suggest that the same vulnerability applies to brain implants. (V) Whereas these advances have a great potential for research and medicine, they pose a fundamental ethical, legal and social challenge: determining under what conditions it is legitimate to gain access to another person’s neural activity.

#74. – 43-46: Answer these questions according to the passage below. – Pick up a glass, fill it from the tap and take a sip. You just had a tiny dose of the pill your neighbour took days before. Excreted and flushed through our sewage works and waterways, drug molecules are all around us. A recent analysis of streams in the US detected an entire pharmacy: diabetic medications, muscle relaxants, opioids, antibiotics, antidepressants and more. Drugs have even been found in crops irrigated by treated waste water. The amounts that end up in your glass are minuscule, and will not lay you low tomorrow. However, someone prescribed multiple drugs is more likely to experience side effects due to these small doses, and risks rise exponentially with each drug taken by a person over 65. “These drugs have been individually approved but we have not studied what it means when they are together in the same soup,” says Mae Wu at the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC). – Which of the following can be true about the tap water in the US? ? 43-46: Answer these questions according to the passage below.

#75. Although alchemy began as a way to turn other metals into gold, —-.

#76. -The thin, invisible layer of gas surrounding the Earth, which is called the atmosphere, shields us from the vacuum of space and protects us from —- solar radiation

#77. – Anyone who —- unusual reactions to antihistamines (medicines that relieve or prevent the symptoms of some kinds of allergy) in the recent past —- his or her physician know before taking the drugs again

#78. – When fighting fat, and trying to eat healthily, changing your eating environment is easier than changing your mind. A research team in the US has set about uncovering the hidden persuaders in our homes that trick us (22)—- overeating – things like serving spoons, cupboards and colours. But most of these tempters can also be reversed to make us slimmer and healthier. (23)—- there are many solutions to mindless eating, most of them will go undiscovered because if we have a problem with our diet, we tend to focus on food itself, not on our surroundings. All that requires willpower, which is hard work and has to last a lifetime to be (24)—- successful. Research has found subtle ways to change our homes, workplaces, schools, or modify our approach to restaurant dining and grocery shopping, so we mindlessly eat less (25)—- eating more. If we want to automatically eat better, we do not need to change our minds, we (26)—- our surroundings.

#79. – What is the Grimm brothers’ impact on the story of Hansel and Gretel?

#80. – Admired by native peoples for thousands of years, the Texas horned lizard has an array of abilities. It mostly eats ants – lots of them, and most parts of an ant’s body are indigestible, which necessitates a huge stomach. Eating more than two hundred ants per day means exposure out in the open for long periods, and having a ‘heavy’ stomach means that a horned lizard finds it difficult to run away from predators. Instead, it relies on an armory of defences. It has camouflage colouring, with an outline broken up by spines and outgrowths, and it will freeze if a predator approaches. Its horns and spines can pierce the throat of a snake or bird, and it can hiss and blow itself up to look even more fearsome. When it comes to coyotes, foxes, and dogs, a horned lizard’s most spectacular defence is to squirt foul-tasting blood from the sinuses behind its eyes. That usually has the desired effect. But it squirts only when it is provoked, since it risks losing up to one quarter of its blood. Such abilities are, however, no defense against human invasion of its land. Its strange shape and colouring has made it attractive to reptile collectors, and its habit of freezing means that it is prone to being run over. – How does a horned lizard defend itself when faced with a predator?

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YDS ingilizce 2018

YABANCI DİL BİLGİSİ SEVİYE TESPİT SINAVI (YDS) İNGİLİZCE 2018 ONLINE DENEME
YABANCI DİL BİLGİSİ SEVİYE TESPİT SINAVI (YDS) İNGİLİZCE 2018 ONLINE DENEME

YDS ingilizce 2018 -Soruların Kitapçığı(pdf)
YDS ingilizce 2018

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